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Blood Disorders

Blood disorders are conditions that affect one or several parts of the blood, causing blood to not function normally. Blood disorders can be acute or chronic. Most of these conditions are hereditary diseases.

Blood contains liquid and solids. The liquid part is called blood plasma. More than half of the blood is plasma. Plasma consists of water, protein, and salt. While the solid part is blood cells consisting of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Blood disorders will have an impact on the function of the parts of the blood, such as interference with red blood cells that are responsible for transporting oxygen to the body's tissues, white blood cells that are responsible for fighting infection, platelets responsible for blood clotting, and plasma. Management of blood disorders depends on which part of the blood is affected, and the severity of it.

The following are some of the blood disorders that affect red blood cells:

Malaria

Malaria spreads through the bite of mosquitoes that have been infected with parasites. Parasites that enter human blood will infect red blood cells and damage these cells. Not only causes symptoms such as fever and chills, damage to red blood cells can also cause damage to body organs.

Anemia

This condition occurs when a person has a low red blood cell count. In cases of mild and moderate anemia, symptoms will usually not occur. However, if the anemia is severe enough, the sufferer will look pale, feel easily tired, and experience shortness of breath. Anemia can occur due to excessive bleeding, iron deficiency, or lack of vitamin B12.

Aplastic anemia

This condition occurs when the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells, one of which is red blood cells. To deal with this condition several methods such as blood transfusions, bone marrow transplants, and medicines may be used. Aplastic anemia can be caused by a viral infection, autoimmune disease, or side effects of drug use.

Hemolytic Autoimmune Anemia

In this condition, the body's immune system becomes overactive and mistakenly destroys red blood cells, causing anemia. People with hemolytic autouimun anemia will need drugs that function to suppress the immune system so as not to destroy cells and body tissues.




Sickle Cell Anemia

This condition makes the red blood cells become sticky and stiff, which eventually inhibits blood flow. Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary disease. Patients with this condition can experience organ damage and unbearable pain.

Polycythemia Vera

This condition occurs when the body produces too many blood cells without obvious causes. Excessive red blood cells can cause blockage of blood flow in some people.

The following are blood disorders that affect white blood cells.

Leukemia

Leukemia is divided into two types, namely acute and chronic. Leukemia is a form of cancer of the blood where white blood cells become malignant and are produced excessively in the bone marrow.

Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer that occurs when white blood cells become malignant. White blood cells will be produced multiple times and release abnormal proteins that can damage organs. This condition must be treated with chemotherapy and / or stem cell transplantation.

Mielodysplasia syndrome

This is one form of blood cancer that affects the bone marrow. Myelodysplasia syndrome often develops slowly, but can change suddenly and become leukemia at a serious level. Handling this condition can be done through blood transfusion, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Lymphoma

This is a blood cancer that develops in the lymph system. White blood cells in people with lymphoma will become malignant, spread abnormally, and multiply uncontrollably. Handling this condition is usually done with chemotherapy and / or with radiation.

The following are blood disorders that affect platelets:

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

This is a specific autoimmune disorder that affects the number of platelets or pieces of blood. Platelets function to help the blood clotting process when bleeding occurs. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) sufferers will easily bruise or may experience excessive bleeding due to low platelet counts in their body. The aim of ITP treatment is to keep the platelet levels in the body and prevent excessive bleeding.

Thrombocytopenia

This condition occurs when the platelet count in the body is low. Thrombocytopenia can occur in several diseases, such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), leukemia or immune system disorders. Conditions that can be experienced by adults and children, can also occur due to the use of certain drugs. Treatment of thrombocytopenia can be done through drug administration, blood transfusion / platelets, or surgery, depending on the underlying health problem.

The following are blood disorders that affect blood plasma:

Hemophilia

Hemophilia is a hereditary disorder that can cause abnormal bleeding. This is caused by blood plasma which does not have enough protein which is important in the blood clotting process.

Sepsis

Sepsis or also called blood poisoning is a reaction of the body's immune system that is excessive in fighting infections that have spread in the blood. The body releases chemical compounds in the blood to fight off infections that occur, eventually triggering a broad inflammatory reaction. Symptoms that arise due to this condition include the intensity of decreased urination, increased pulse rate, rapid breathing, fever, low blood pressure, and organ failure.

Hypercoagulation

In this condition, blood becomes easily frozen or lumpy. Hypercoagulation can be triggered by many things, one of which is heredity. Other conditions that can be triggered are surgery, cancer, pregnancy, smoking habits, or the use of birth control pills. Hypercoagulation must be treated through the administration of blood thinning drugs.

Von Willebrand's disease

Conditions that can cause excessive bleeding are generally hereditary diseases. Von Willebrand disease is caused by a lack of protein levels or abnormalities in proteins that help with the blood clotting process. People who experience this condition need more time to freeze blood, so that bleeding is difficult to stop.



References

References

American Society of Hematology. (2018). For Patient. Blood Disorders.

Family Doctor (2014). Hypercoagulation.

Beckman, MG. et al. (2014). Public Health Surveillance of Nonmalignant Blood.


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Is a health and wellness enthusiast. In him free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.

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