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Dengue Fever : Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus that is transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

Symptoms of Dengue Fever

  • Symptoms generally occur 4-7 days since mosquito bites, and can last for 10 days. Some symptoms of dengue fever include:
  • High fever reaches 40 degrees Celsius.
  • Severe headache.
  • Pain in joints, muscles, and bones.
  • Pain in the back of the eye.
  • Appetite decreases.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Swollen lymph nodes.
  • A reddish rash that occurs around 2-5 days after a fever.
  • Damage to blood vessels and lymph.
  • Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin.

Causes of Dengue Fever

Dengue fever is caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted by mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Both of these mosquitoes bite in the morning until late afternoon. Viruses from infected people will be carried by mosquitoes and infect other people who are bitten by the mosquito.

Risk Factors for Dengue Fever

Some risk factors for dengue fever include:

  • Have had a dengue virus infection before.
  • Live or travel to the tropics.
  • Infants, children, the elderly, and people with weak immunity.

Diagnosis of Dengue Fever

Doctors will diagnose dengue fever by conducting medical interviews, physical examinations, and investigations such as blood tests in the laboratory.

Treatment of Dengue Fever

So far, there is no specific treatment for dengue fever. Treatment aims to deal with symptoms and prevent viral infections from getting worse. Some of the efforts recommended by doctors include:

  • Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration.
  • Get enough rest.
  • Consumption of relatively safe fever-lowering drugs, such as paracetamol.
  • Avoid pain relievers, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, because they can cause bleeding complications.
  • Monitor the frequency of urination and the amount of urine coming out.

Complications of Dengue Fever

The serious complication of dengue is dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Symptoms and signs of DSS include:

  • Signs of bleeding, such as nosebleeds, bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, black vomiting, coughing up blood, or defecation with black stools.
  • Blood pressure decreases.
  • The skin is wet and feels cold.
  • The pulse is weakening.
  • The frequency of urination decreases and the amount of urine comes out a little.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Shortness of breath or irregular breathing patterns.
  • Widening of the pupil.

If it is not treated immediately, DSS can experience deterioration and result in bodily organ dysfunction that leads to death.




Prevention of Dengue Fever

Some efforts can be made to prevent dengue fever, including:

  • Giving dengue vaccine to children aged 9-16 years, 3 times with a distance of 6 months.
  • Eradicate mosquito nests that are carried out in two times fumigating insecticides or fogging with a distance of 1 week.
  • Drain water reservoirs, such as bathtubs, at least every week.
  • Close tightly the water reservoir.
  • Recycle items that have the potential to become breeding grounds for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
  • Adjust enough light inside the house.
  • Install mosquito repellent wire in the house vents.
  • Spread larvacide powder (abate) on water reservoirs that are difficult to drain.
  • Using a mosquito net while sleeping.
  • Plant mosquito repellent plants.
  • Stop the habit of hanging clothes.
  • Avoid areas that are vulnerable to infection.
  • Wear loose clothes.
  • Use mosquito repellent containing N-diethylmetatoluamide (DEET), but don't use DEET in children under 2 years.

When to go to the doctor?

If you have done prevention, but dengue fever is still attacking and disrupting daily activities, immediately visit a doctor to ask for advice. Handling as early as possible will help prevent the emergence of more severe problems.



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Is a health and wellness enthusiast. In him free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.

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