Monday, July 13 2020
Home / Condition H / Hypertension

Hypertension : Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a condition of increasing blood pressure to levels that are considered medically dangerous. Someone is considered to have this disease if he has blood pressure of 140 mmHg or more for systolic blood pressure and 90mmHg or more for diastolic blood pressure.

If not handled and continues in the long term, this condition can damage blood vessels and ultimately increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disorders.

Hypertension Symptoms

At first, the symptoms of this condition are generally not felt. But over time indications will begin to appear when the patient's blood pressure has reached a severe level.

The symptoms experienced by each sufferer are usually different. These symptoms will also be affected by the presence or absence of other health problems. What generally indicates high blood pressure?

  • Dizzy
  • Headache
  • Hard to breathe
  • Nosebleed
  • Blushing face
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)

If you feel the symptoms above, you should see a doctor. Regular medical examinations are important to anticipate the risk of any health problems, including high blood pressure.

Risk Factors and Causes of Hypertension

High blood pressure is divided into 2 types, namely primary and secondary types. Basically, these two conditions are distinguished by duration and severity.

Primary type

There are no studies that can confirm how primary hypertension can occur. But there is one thing that is certain, namely this condition occurs slowly until years before finally blood pressure reaches a dangerous level. The risk factors behind it include:

1. Lifestyle

A person who is obese or overweight has a higher risk of developing high blood pressure. Obesity is generally caused by poor lifestyle, such as eating foods with excessive fat content or lack of exercise.

In the end, these bad habits expose patients to the risk of heart attack and stroke if done in the long term.

2. Organ Disorders

Besides bad habits, organ dysfunction can also cause high blood pressure. For example, problems in the kidney that have an impact on the balance of fluid and salt levels in a person's body.

3. Heredity Factor

Patients or someone who is at high risk of suffering from this condition are more likely to reduce the condition similar to their children.

Secondary Type

Someone who experiences secondary hypertension is considered to be in an emergency condition and must get medical treatment as soon as possible. This type of hypertension can occur quickly due to several underlying conditions, such as:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Congenital heart abnormalities.
  • Kidney illness.
  • Thyroid disorders.
  • Endocrine disorders.
  • Adrenal gland disorders.
  • Side effects of using drugs.
  • Drug abuse.
  • Effects of long-term alcoholism.

Diagnosis of Hypertension

This disease is often dubbed the silent killer because sufferers are usually not aware of his condition. In the long run, high blood pressure will damage blood vessels and lead to heart disease.

Therefore, routine health checks are needed to determine the development of blood pressure from time to time. This step is not only recommended for sufferers, people in general should also check regularly.

Checking blood pressure levels is not difficult. The doctor will use a tensimeter to check it. The patient's hand will be bound to find out the pulse of the blood flow. The following blood pressure numbers are recommended based on age:

  • Normal blood pressure under the age of 60 years: Systolic 120-129 mmHg and diastolic 80-89 mmHg.
  • Normal blood pressure above the age of 60 years: Systolic below 150 mmHg and diastolic below 90 mmHg.
  • High blood pressure under the age of 60 years: Systolic above 140 mmHg and diastolic exceed 90 mmHg.
  • High blood pressure above the age of 60 years: Systolic above 150 mmHg and Diastolic exceed 90 mmHg


Even so, a person's blood pressure number that is above normal does not necessarily mean he has hypertension. Doctors need regular assessment in the following days or weeks to ascertain whether these changes are only temporary or even worse.

In some cases, an increase in blood pressure can occur only at the end of the day or as a temporary effect of consuming certain foods. If that's the case, blood pressure will usually return to normal.

When you see a person's blood pressure getting worse with time, the doctor will recommend another examination to find out the underlying causes. The examination in question includes:

  • Monitoring cholesterol in the blood.
  • Urine content test.
  • Test the effectiveness of the heart.


The purpose of the examination is to anticipate patients from secondary types of high blood pressure. This condition is generally caused by certain health problems must be dealt with immediately.

How to treat hypertension

Treatment of high blood pressure should be done through advice from a doctor because the causes may vary. The doctor will determine the type of high blood pressure suffered while providing a choice of solutions from these results.

Primary type

Medications are one option to help cure primary hypertension. But before that, doctors usually prioritize giving advice to change lifestyle to healthier ones. Some suggestions include:

1. Applying a Healthy Diet and Maintaining Weight

Vegetables, fruits, wheat, and animal protein from fish are foods that are good for the heart. These foods are also recommended to deal with while preventing high blood pressure.

Healthy diet is also beneficial for maintaining weight. With this, the weight figure is expected to remain at the ideal number limit.

2. Exercise regularly

Exercise is the right way to prevent stress, burn calories that accumulate, and strengthen the work of the heart. Try to spend 30 minutes at least 3 days a week to do sports.

You do not need to choose the type of exercise that is heavy. For example, you can walk fast or run around the housing, or morning exercise on the porch of the house before leaving for work or school.

3. Stop Smoking and Limit Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages

Smoking is one of the causes of narrowing of blood vessels. This condition is one of the symptoms of high blood pressure.

In addition to hypertension, smoking in the long term will increase a person's risk of having a heart attack. Likewise, if you consume excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages and constantly.

Secondary Hypertension

If you find any other health problems that underlie a surge in blood pressure, the doctor will prioritize the treatment of these conditions. For example, in high blood pressure due to consumption of certain drugs, doctors will replace it with other types of drugs.

Treatment for secondary types of high blood pressure can generally change. Treatment methods that are initially effective, can be useless or dangerous at a later stage. Therefore, the patient's condition will continue to be monitored by a doctor

Over time, the doctor will continue to update the form of treatment provided. Some types of drugs that will generally be given can be:

  • Beta-blockers
  • Diuretics
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • ACE inhibitor
  • Alpha-2 antagonist
  • Calcium channel blocker

Prevention of hypertension

Prevention is certainly better than treatment. This expression also applies to high blood pressure. You can do the following simple steps:

1. Combining Healthier Foods

Optimize healthy and balanced nutrition. In particular, reduce fatty foods and add fibrous foods. For example, instead of adding a portion of grilled meat, it's better to increase vegetable consumption with a little extra roast meat.

Start reducing foods and drinks that contain lots of sugar. Avoid soft drinks, sugary cereal, and sweet yogurt. Find out the composition of each ready-to-eat meal or processed product before consuming it.

2. Exercising and Determining the Ideal Target Weight

Getting the ideal body weight requires high spirit and consistency. Make a relaxing exercise schedule. No need to choose the type of strenuous exercise so as not to complicate yourself. Enough to do it for about 30 minutes, at least 3 days every week.

3. Perform blood pressure checks regularly

After undergoing a healthy diet and exercising regularly, it's time to check the development of blood pressure. This step needs to be done routinely.

You can do a blood pressure check at home with electric tensimeter or at a health clinic. Monitoring the development of blood pressure will increase awareness of health. Handling can also be done as soon as possible if a sudden surge occurs.

Hypertension and Pregnancy

Women with hypertension are more likely to experience complications. As an example:

  • Pregnant women with hypertension may experience a decline in kidney function.
  • The risk of babies born underweight or experiencing preterm birth


Apart from that, pregnant women with hypertension can still give birth to babies with healthy conditions. Even so, the condition of blood pressure must be checked regularly, especially in the period of pregnancy.

Not only pregnant women, everyone should be aware of high blood pressure. This disease often appears without symptoms, making it difficult to detect.

Need to check blood pressure to find out. Therefore, routine or periodic medical examinations should be carried out so that the condition of hypertension can be traced early.

Subscribe to our e-mail newsletter to get interesting stuff receive updates.

How useful was this post?

(1 Not useful / 5 Very useful)

User Rating: 0.0 ( 0 votes)
Is a health and wellness enthusiast. In him free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.