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Pneumonia is inflammation of the lower airways which causes disruption of the local gas exchange. In the past, this disease was classified as Typical Pneumonia - caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae - and Typical Pneumonia - caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. But in its development, the division of the disease is classified into other classifications, namely pneumonia that occurs in hospitals (nosocomial pneumonia) and community pneumonia. Nosocomial pneumonia is pneumonia that occurs after 48 hours or more during hospital treatment, while community pneumonia occurs due to the infection process outside the hospital.


Pneumonia is an acute lower respiratory tract infection that attacks the active area of lung tissue. Although this disease is widely known in various regions, the incidence of this disease in the United States is still difficult to predict. In a study conducted on 46,237 elderly people (65-69 years), it was reported that 18.2 cases per 1000 people occur every year.

Based on the latest data, it is predicted that more than 5 million cases of pneumonia occur in the United States. 80% of cases of sufferers undergo outpatient care and 20% of cases of patients are hospitalized. Within the age of 4 years, 12 to 18 per 1000 children are infected with this disease. While in the scope of age over 60 years, the ratio of occurrences is as much as 20 per 1000 people. As many as 1.2 million cases of hospitalization and more than 55,000 deaths occur each year.


The signs and symptoms of this disease vary depending on the cause, age and clinical condition of the sufferer. Even so, there are several signs and symptoms that can be a reference to the germs that cause and the severity of the disease suffered by the patient. These signs and symptoms include:

  • Muscle ache
  • Limp
  • Dry cough or with a little phlegm
  • Fever
  • Short and fast breathing
  • Gag
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • It is slow
  • Difficult to swallow


If you experience the symptoms and signs above, immediately consult your condition with a doctor so that therapy can be given in the right way.


Like signs and symptoms, the causes of this disease also vary in various types of pneumonia. The method of transmission is closely related to the type of germs that cause pneumonia. For example, transmission through small particles in someone who is coughing is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, through an intravenous tube by Staphylococcus aureus, or through the use of a breathing apparatus (ventilator) by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Enterobacter.

In the present there is a change in the pattern of causes of lower airway infections due to a person's immune disorders, pollution of the environment, and improper use of antibiotics which causes changes in the characteristics of germs. An increase in the mechanism of infection by various types of germs, especially Staphylococcus Aureus, Branhamella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Enterobateriacae.

There are several factors that increase the occurrence of this disease outside the Hospital (community pneumonia), including:

  • Age more than 65 years
  • Alcoholics
  • Smoke
  • Diseases that cause immune suppression
  • Use of corticosteroids
  • Contact with elderly clinics
  • Live in a nursing home
  • Just finished getting antibiotic therapy
  • Malnutrition
  • Broad spectrum antibiotic use for more than 7 days


Factors that increase the occurrence of this disease in hospitals (nosocomial pneumonia), include:

  • Hospital treatment is more than 2 days or more in the previous 90 days
  • Patients who get infusion therapy (including antibiotics)
  • Patients undergoing cancer therapy
  • Individuals who often come to the hospital
  • Care of wounds at home
  • Family members who have been infected


The diagnosis of this disease is carried out with the intention of giving therapy in a directed manner. This includes a diagnosis of the shape and extent of the disease, the severity of the disease, and the estimated type of germs that cause infection. Predictions about infectious microorganisms will direct the therapy by doctors so that patients get the right therapy. In certain cases, often this disease shows similar symptoms even if caused by different germs.

The doctor will conduct targeted interviews, physical examinations, investigations (for example: chest radiology photos), laboratory tests (for example: blood tests), until bacteriological examination (for example: phlegm examination). In addition, the doctor will also consider whether the patient needs to be treated or not.


There are several actions that can be taken to prevent the occurrence of this disease, namely:

Community pneumonia

  • Can be given influenza vaccination at:
    • High risk individuals
    • Individuals with immune disorders
    • Individuals with serious illness
    • Residents of nursing homes or chronic disease shelter
    • Age over 65 years
  • Quit smoking
  • Avoid alcoholic drinks
  • Meet your nutritional needs every day
  • Regular exercise and adequate rest


Nosocomial pneumonia

Prevention is carried out with efforts to control and control infection programs, including:

  • Educating staff on pneumonia
  • Training on the implementation of isolation techniques
  • Practice training on infection contamination


In principle, the treatment of pneumonia is the administration of certain antibiotics in a type of lower respiratory tract infection. This treatment is intended to treat germs that cause this disease. Factors - antibiotic treatment factors are carried out with consideration:

1. Patient factors

Giving antibiotics will be considered through the severity of a lower respiratory tract infection. In addition, the general condition of the patient, awareness, age, and decreased organ function are also considerations of antibiotic treatment given.

2. Antibiotic factors

The antibiotic factor in question is the low possibility of effective antibiotics in one type for all types of germs. The doctor will consider the efficiency of an antibiotic in various aspects. The effectiveness of an antibiotic also depends on the sensitivity of germs to antibiotics.

3. Pharmacological factors

The pharmacological factor in question is the process of traveling the drug after being taken to the target organ. It is considered to prescribe the right medication and achieve optimal drug effectiveness.


If the disease is left alone, and is not treated with the right method or therapy, then there are other possible complications, such as:

  • Brain membrane infection
  • Infection of the inner heart
  • Infection of the protective layer of the heart
  • Infection of the inner lining of the stomach
  • Blood infection

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Is a health and wellness enthusiast. In him free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.