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7 Most Common Pregnancy Complications Occur

Most pregnancies are normal, but some have the possibility of experiencing serious complications or health problems. Recognize possible complications that are common during pregnancy, so you can be alert and prevent them.

Complications of pregnancy can occur due to a number of conditions that exist before pregnancy as well as those that just happened during pregnancy. Pregnancy complications can affect the mother and fetus with symptoms and impacts that vary depending on the severity. In severe cases, complications of pregnancy can threaten the life of the mother and fetus.

Common Types of Pregnancy Complications Occur

In order to recognize and anticipate complications of pregnancy, you need to know what complications can occur, as well as the causes and symptoms. The following are seven common pregnancy complications:

1. Hyperemesis gravidarum

Hyperemesis gravidarum is similar to morning sickness, but with more severe symptoms. Nausea and vomiting in hyperemesis gravidarum will last longer, even up to the second or third trimester. His complaints were even more severe, making the pregnant women dehydrated and difficult to eat or drink.

The exact cause of hyperemesis gravidarum is not known for certain, but one reason is suspected of increasing hormone levels during pregnancy. Prevention efforts have not been carried out because the exact cause of this condition is unknown.

To prevent dehydration and lack of nutrients that can endanger the fetus, when you experience severe nausea and vomiting, consult a doctor immediately. If necessary, the doctor will advise pregnant women who experience hyperemesis gravidarum to be infused and hospitalized.

2. Anemia

The body needs iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid to form hemoglobin, which is a protein in red blood cells that functions to deliver oxygen to all body tissues.

When pregnant, blood needs will increase to support fetal growth. But if the body of a pregnant woman is unable to produce more hemoglobin, anemia can occur. Anemia during pregnancy is generally characterized by fatigue, dizziness, difficulty concentrating, pale skin, even shortness of breath.

Anemia in pregnant women is a thing to watch out for. Because, anemia that is not treated can cause low infant weight, premature birth, until birth defects. This condition is more common in pregnant women who experience morning sickness, twin pregnancies or have an unhealthy diet.

Read Also : List of Foods Containing Folic Acid

3. Less amniotic fluid

In the womb, the fetus dwells in a bag containing amniotic fluid. The function of this fluid is to protect the fetus from collisions and infections, maintain a stable uterine temperature, and help fetal organs to develop.

This amount of fluid will continue to decrease starting at 36 weeks' gestation until finally the fetus is born. But be careful, the decrease in amniotic fluid volume that is too fast can cause pregnancy complications, such as breech babies and premature babies.

4. Miscarriage

Miscarriage is defined as the death of the fetus in the womb at the age of not yet 20 weeks. This condition can be characterized by vaginal bleeding, the stomach feels cramped or very painful, pain radiates to the back, the body feels weak, and sometimes accompanied by fever.

Most miscarriages occur due to abnormalities in the chromosomes or genetic components that lead to fetal growth disorders. Other things that can also cause miscarriages are hormonal disorders, autoimmune responses, too tired, smoking, alcohol consumption, uterine abnormalities, and cervical weakness.

The risk of miscarriage will also increase in pregnant women who have certain diseases, such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, and high blood pressure.

5. Bleeding

About 25-40% of pregnant women experience bleeding in the first trimester. However, not all bleeding during pregnancy is dangerous. This bleeding can be caused by the process of attaching a fertilized egg to the uterine wall or having sexual intercourse quite strongly.

However, bleeding during pregnancy can be a serious condition if followed by symptoms of miscarriage, such as severe abdominal pain and cramps. In addition, bleeding that occurs as a result of an ectopic pregnancy or abnormal fetal growth, such as in wine pregnancy, also needs to be watched out.

Therefore, bleeding during pregnancy still should not be underestimated, although only in the form of blood spots that are few in number. When experiencing it, immediately consult a gynecologist for proper treatment.

6. Urinary tract infections (UTI)

Urinary tract infection or UTI is a disease in pregnant women that must be diagnosed as soon as possible. About 10 percent of women experience UTIs during the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women are susceptible to UTI because pregnancy hormones change urinary tract tissue and make you more susceptible to infection.

UTI is caused by a bacterial infection that attacks the urinary tract and bladder. If not treated immediately, this infection can risk causing kidney infection and cause premature babies to be born.


There are several symptoms of UTI that you can recognize, namely:

  • Pain or feeling hot when urinating
  • Often want to urinate
  • The urine smells bad and looks cloudy
  • The lower abdomen feels depressed
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Back pain

If you experience any of these symptoms, you should immediately consult your doctor. If you prove you have a UTI, your doctor will give antibiotics to treat the infection.

7. Ectopic pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the egg that is successfully fertilized is even embedded outside the uterus. That is why ectopic pregnancy is also often referred to as "pregnant outside the womb".

Even if you have this condition, you may still experience some symptoms of a normal pregnancy, such as breast pain, fatigue, and nausea. If you use a test pack it might also get positive results.


These signs and symptoms of pregnancy complications vary and are different in each woman. But the most common symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are:

  • Mild vaginal bleeding.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Abdominal cramps.
  • Pain on one side of the body.
  • Dizziness or weakness
  • Fainting (rare).

However, many women have no symptoms at all. So, if you feel that there are irregularities during pregnancy, you should immediately consult a doctor.

In addition to the seven complications above, there are several other complications that you also need to be aware of, namely preeclampsia or pregnancy poisoning, placental disorders, gestational diabetes, and infections during pregnancy.

In order for these complications to be prevented and detected early on, pregnant women need to carry out routine pregnancy checks. If complications of pregnancy are found, the doctor will provide a number of treatments according to the disorder.

Although there are various complications that can occur during pregnancy, pregnant women do not need to worry too much, because it will interfere with fetal growth and development. The important thing is to take care of your health by eating nutrient-rich foods and adequate rest periods, as well as having your pregnancy checked by a gynecologist on a regular basis.



1. Baby Center. (2014). 7 pregnancy complications to watch out for

2. CDC. (2016). Pregnancy Complications | Pregnancy | Maternal and Infant Health

2. Health and Human Development. What Are Some Common Complications of Pregnancy?

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