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Causes of Body Abnormalities with Biopsy

A biopsy is a medical procedure that is used to detect abnormalities in body tissues using a microscope. This procedure is performed by a doctor to get a picture of the body's tissue shape and diagnose certain diseases, such as cancer.

To find out the cause of an illness, doctors can take samples of body tissues, such as skin, organs, or lumps in certain parts of the body. The sample is taken to the laboratory and then examined under a microscope, it is useful to know the condition of the disorder specifically. With this technique, the doctor can determine a definite diagnosis and can recommend the right type of treatment. The doctor who performs a biopsy examination is a specialist in anatomical pathology.

Disorders that Require Biopsy

One of the abnormalities in the body that can be detected by a biopsy is a lump that is suspected of being a tumor, such as a lump in the breast. A biopsy can detect whether the lump is cancerous or is caused by something else.

Other medical conditions that can also be diagnosed by biopsy examination include:

  • Some types of skin problems, such as changes in shape.
  • Infection of the lymph nodes.
  • Kidney or liver inflammation.

In addition to detecting a certain medical condition, a biopsy can also be used to determine the severity of the disease that has been detected, for example, the level of cancer malignancy.

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Types of Biopsy

There are various types of biopsies that doctors can take to take tissue samples in the body, according to the location of the body tissue to be taken as a sample and the type of tissue. Before a biopsy is performed, the doctor needs to do a physical examination and investigation, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to detect the location and type of tissue affected by the disease, so that the right choice of biopsy type can be determined.

The following types:

1. Needle biopsy

One of the many biopsy techniques that are done is taking abnormal body tissue with a needle. If the doctor takes a tissue sample that is below the surface of the skin, the type of needle biopsy used is Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA). If the sample is taken large, the doctor will use a core needle biopsy (CNB) technique.

CT scans or ultrasound are often used as a tool to help doctors direct the needle to the right location. You may feel a small pinch like feeling at the location of the biopsy. But if you undergo CNB, patients will usually be given a local anesthetic to make the area numb.

2. Punch biopsy

A special surgical tool is used by doctors to make small incisions on the skin and take samples of the top layer of skin tissue. Usually, the doctor will give a local anesthetic to make the area numb. After the process is complete, the incision will be closed with stitches. This technique is commonly used to detect various types of skin problems.

3. Existing biopsy

This technique is used to remove extensive tissue, such as abnormal lumps. The patient will be given anesthesia to prevent pain, and the type of anesthesia is adjusted to the location of the tissue to be removed.

4. Endoscopic biopsy

A flexible thin hose equipped with lights and a camera inserted into the body. This tool is also equipped with a cutting tool at the end of the hose, to make it easier for doctors to take tissue samples.

In addition to passing small incisions on the skin, the hose can be inserted through the nose, mouth, or anus, depending on the location to be examined. This type of biopsy is usually done during an endoscopic examination.

5. Surgical biopsy

This is a biopsy carried out in the operation process. Usually, this method is used so that the results can be immediately known, even when the doctor is still in the process of surgery so that further therapy can be immediately determined. An abnormal lump found during surgery can usually be immediately removed. The surgical biopsy can also be done when other biopsy methods are difficult to reach the area to be examined. Risks that can occur due to surgical biopsy procedures are bleeding or infection.

6. Bone marrow biopsy

Bone marrow biopsy is done by taking a sample of bone marrow tissue using a needle. Before the injection is done, the doctor will give a local anesthetic to help reduce pain. This type of biopsy is done to determine the causes of disorders of the blood, such as anemia, lymphoma, and leukemia, or to monitor the body's response to chemotherapy.

Before undergoing a biopsy, you are advised to tell the doctor about the drugs being consumed, especially those that can cause bleeding, such as warfarin, aspirin, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). So are herbal medicines and supplements.

After the procedure is complete, most patients do not need to stay in the hospital. However, if you undergo an organ biopsy using general anesthesia, you are required to stay in the hospital for at least one night, to restore the condition from anesthesia.

Biopsy results can be known after a few days. There are also things that can be immediately known when the procedure is done, but the diagnosis is only temporary. The most accurate results can take up to weeks because it takes a long time to examine the sample. Discuss with the doctor about reports of biopsy results received and their follow-up.



  1. Mayo Clinic (2016). Biopsy: Types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose cancer. 
    Johns Hopkins Medicine. Health Library. Bone Marrow Biopsy. 
  2. Wechter, D. US National Library of Medicine Medline Plus (2016). Biopsy.

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Is a health and wellness enthusiast. In him free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.

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