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Causes of Kyphosis and Various Risk Factors

Kyphosis is one of the abnormalities in the spine, where the shape of the upper spine is too bent or curved backward so that the sufferer's body posture becomes bent.

Mild kyphosis usually does not require treatment. However, if the condition is severe enough, kyphosis can cause pain, so that requires treatment by a doctor.

Causes of Kyphosis You Need to Know

Based on the cause, kyphosis can be divided into several types, namely:

1. Postural kyphosis

Postural kyphosis is the most common type of kyphosis in adolescents. The condition of the bent upper spine is caused by the habit of bending when sitting and standing.

Postural kyphosis is more commonly experienced by girls than boys. However, this type of kyphosis is classified as mild and rarely causes pain. Postural kyphosis is also easily corrected by practicing correct sitting and standing.

2. Scheuermann's kyphosis

Scheuermann kyphosis is a type of kyphosis characterized by abnormalities of the spinal structure. This type of kyphosis sufferers has a somewhat rounded spinal structure so that his posture is bent.

Scheuermann's kyphosis generally occurs in adolescence and is more commonly experienced by boys than girls. This type of kyphosis can often cause pain in the back.

3. Congenital kyphosis

Congenital kyphosis or in medical terms is called congenital kyphosis is a spinal disorder that occurs since in the womb. Until now, the cause is unknown. Children with congenital kyphosis usually also have other birth defects, such as in the heart or kidneys.

Congenital kyphosis requires immediate medical treatment because the condition is prone to worsening as the child develops.

Various Risk Factors for Kyphosis

Increasing age is one of the factors that can trigger kyphosis. This is because, with age, the risk of brittle bones or osteoporosis will increase.

Also, several medical conditions can increase the risk of kyphosis, namely:

  • Tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection that can occur in almost all parts of the body.
  • Spina bifida, a birth defect that occurs when the spinal cord and bone marrow do not form properly.
  • Paget's disease, which is a disease that interferes with the process of bone formation, so the bones become brittle.
  • Neurofibromatosis, which is a tumor in nerve tissue. This condition includes genetic disorders.
  • Muscular dystrophy or muscular dystrophy, a genetic disorder that causes the muscle to progressively weaken.
  • Spinal cord injury.

Treatment of Kyphosis

In most people with kyphosis do not need treatment because of only an error in body posture. Even so, the sufferer must improve posture through physiotherapy. Besides, in kyphosis with spinal abnormalities, treatment depends on the causative factor. These factors are age and sex, as well as the severity of the disease.

Other treatments that may be performed by doctors to overcome kyphosis is by giving medicines. Medications that may be given by doctors are pain relievers and medications for osteoporosis. In addition to providing medication, the doctor will also advise the sufferer to stretch regularly.

Treatment of kyphosis depends on the cause, including:

Prevention of Kyphosis

Kyphosis caused by osteoporosis can be prevented by consuming foods rich in calcium and vitamin D.

Kyphosis can be caused by various things and the risk of this spinal disorder can increase in certain conditions. Indeed, not all kyphosis is dangerous and requires a doctor's treatment, but if you feel complaints about the spine and abnormal posture, you should consult a doctor.



  1. NHS Choices UK (2018). Kyphosis.
  2. Shah, S. A. & McCarthy, A. Kids Health (2019). Scheuermann's Kyphosis.

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