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Common Causes of Bleeding During Pregnancy

Anyone will be scared and panic when experiencing bleeding while pregnant. Bleeding from the vagina during pregnancy does not always indicate a problem. But still, you have to beware, especially if accompanied by other symptoms such as abdominal pain.

Bleeding during pregnancy is a condition that is quite common in the early trimester of pregnancy. About 20 percent of pregnant women experience bleeding during pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. This condition does not always indicate a serious problem in pregnancy.

However, this condition must still be watched by pregnant women, because bleeding during pregnancy can be a sign of a miscarriage or other conditions that can endanger a pregnant woman.

Common Causes of Bleeding During First Trimester Pregnancy

In the first trimester or the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, bleeding during pregnancy is experienced by 2 in 10 pregnant women. Some conditions that can trigger this, namely:




Miscarriage

The most common cause of bleeding during pregnancy in the first trimester is a miscarriage. About 20-30 percent of women who experience bleeding during pregnancy in the early trimester will end in miscarriage. Besides bleeding, other symptoms of miscarriage are cramps or pain in the lower abdomen and the release of tissue or lumps of meat through the vagina.

Read Also : 7 Types of Women Who Are Vulnerable to Experiencing Miscarriage

Implantation bleeding

In the first 6-12 days of pregnancy, pregnant women may bleed. Spots appear when the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall. In some cases, many women equate this condition with a normal menstrual cycle and do not realize that they are pregnant.

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy can also be a cause of bleeding during pregnancy. Even so, this condition is very rare and usually only affects about 2 percent of the number of pregnant women. Ectopic pregnancy itself occurs when a fertilized egg is attached to a place other than the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. If the embryo continues to develop, the fallopian tubes over time the risk of rupture causing dangerous bleeding. In addition to bleeding, an ectopic pregnancy is usually accompanied by cramps in the lower abdomen or pelvis, pain radiating to the shoulder, feeling discomfort when defecating or urinating, feeling weak, fainting, and decreasing the hormone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin).

Molar pregnancy

Molar pregnancy or grape pregnancy occurs when tissue that is supposed to be a fetus, develops into abnormal tissue so that no fetus will form. In rare cases, molar pregnancy can turn into cancer that can spread to all parts of the body. Nevertheless, the cause of bleeding during pregnancy is very rare.

Causes of Bleeding during the Second and Third Trimester Pregnancy

If the above causes occur when a new pregnancy reaches the age of the first trimester, then some of the conditions below can cause bleeding during pregnancy when gestational age enters the second and third trimesters.

Sexual intercourse

Bleeding during pregnancy can also be caused by sexual relations between pregnant women and partners. Having sex causes changes in the texture of the cervix or uterus.

Placental abruption

Another cause for bleeding during pregnancy in the advanced trimester is placental abruption. Placental abruption itself is a serious condition in which the placenta begins to detach from the uterine wall, both before and during labor. This condition can occur even without causing bleeding. In addition to bleeding, other symptoms are back pain, abdominal pain, uterine pain, until the fetus lacks oxygen.

Placenta previa

Another condition that can cause bleeding during pregnancy is placenta previa. This condition can occur when the placenta attaches to the lower part of the uterus, near the mouth of the uterus, or covers the cervix so that the birth canal becomes blocked. The recommended treatment option for pregnant women with this condition is to give birth by cesarean section after the age of the fetus is quite months.

Birth opening

Bleeding during pregnancy can also be caused by opening when a woman is about to give birth. This may occur for several days before contractions begin or during labor. In some cases, bleeding during pregnancy can also be a sign of preterm labor.

Other things that might cause bleeding during pregnancy when pregnancy is older are vaginal infections, cervical examinations or pelvic examinations (Pap smears), and cervical polyps.

In some cases, bleeding during pregnancy is not a serious condition and still allows you to have a healthy birth. However, it is still advisable to immediately consult a gynecologist when experiencing it. This is to anticipate things that are not desirable and ensure that bleeding during pregnancy is not caused by dangerous conditions.





References

References

  1. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG (2016). Bleeding During Pregnancy.
  2. Dashiell, A. & Kelly, K. Parents. Spotting While Pregnant: What's Normal, What's Not.

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Health and clinical interests include all aspects of infectious diseases

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