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Conditions of diabetes that require insulin injections and how to use them

For those of you with diabetes, the main thing that must always be done is to control blood sugar levels. because, diabetes cannot be cured, but it can be controlled. One of the controls is given insulin injections.

Diabetes is a disease that causes blood sugar levels to rise excessively, because the insulin hormone is not enough or even none at all. Insulation of insulin will help take over the function of the body's natural insulin, so it can regulate blood sugar levels.

The workings of artificial insulin are almost the same as the natural insulin hormone which is processing blood sugar into energy. In addition, insulin also prevents the liver from producing excess sugar levels.

What is the function of insulin injections for diabetics?

Insulin injections needed by patients If the body of type 1 diabetics can only make very little or no insulin, then in type 2 diabetes, the body may still be able to make insulin naturally but not enough or cannot be used effectively.

In type 2 diabetes, there is generally no immediate recommendation for insulin injections. Patients with type 2 diabetes will be asked to improve their lifestyle, and take medication according to the doctor's advice. However, if this condition worsens over time, or if the drinking drug is no longer effective, chances are the doctor will suggest using insulin injections.

Types of Insulin Injections

The use of insulin injections is recommended to be in accordance with the doctor's advice. After checking your condition, your doctor will recommend the type and dosage of insulin that is right for you.

Rapid-acting insulin

This type of insulin works very quickly in reducing the body's blood sugar levels. Therefore, it is used 15 minutes before eating. Here are examples of rapid-acting insulin:

  • Insulin lispro (Humalog), this type of insulin only takes about 15-30 minutes to reach your blood vessels and can reduce blood sugar levels in 30-60 minutes. Can maintain normal blood sugar for 3-5 hours.
  • Insulin Asprat (Novolog), only takes 10-20 to enter the blood vessels and can reduce blood sugar levels 40-50 minutes. In addition, this type of insulin can maintain normal blood sugar levels for 3-5 hours.
  • Insulin gluisine (Apidra), takes 20-30 minutes to get to the blood vessels, can reduce blood in just 30-90 minutes, and maintain it between 1-2.5 hours.

Short-acting insulin

This type of insulin can also reduce blood sugar levels quickly - though not as fast as rapid-acting. Usually, this insulin will be given 30-60 minutes before eating. The following is an example:

  • Regular (R) or novolin, which is able to reach the blood vessels in 30-60 minutes, works quickly by spending 2-5 hours, and maintains blood sugar levels up to 5-8 hours.

Long-acting insulin

This type of insulin can work for a day, therefore insulin use is more widely used at night and only once per day. Usually, long-acting insulin will be combined with rapid-acting or short-acting insulin. The following is an example:

  • Insulin glargine (Lantus, Toujeo), is able to reach the blood vessels in 1-1.5 hours and maintain blood sugar levels for approximately 20 hours.
  • Insulin detemir (Levemir), reaches the blood vessels for about 1-2 hours and works for 24 hours.
  • Insulin degludec (Tresiba), enters the blood vessel in 30-90 minutes and works for 42 hours.


Injecting insulin is used before meals or before going to bed so that blood sugar levels remain stable. However, each insulin has a different way of working according to its type, and its use will be adjusted to the patient's condition. You are not recommended to stop using insulin, change the dose, or change the type of insulin without consulting a doctor first.

How to use insulin injections

Besides giving information about when using insulin injections, you can ask the doctor to explain how to use insulin injections.

First, ask the doctor about which area of the body is the location of the insulin injection. Generally, doctors will recommend injecting on the soft parts of the body and have a lot of fat such as thighs, abdomen, buttocks, or upper arms.

Insulation of insulin is done using the help of conventional syringes or insulin pen. How to inject insulin with both devices is not much different.

The following are ways of injecting insulin using conventional syringes:

  • Wash your hands first with water and soap before handling the syringe, then open the lid outside the vial or pack the insulin, then wipe the rubber on the top of the package with an alcohol tissue.
  • After that, pull the injection lever until the syringe is filled with air a number of insulin doses recommended by the doctor.
  • Insert the tip of the syringe into the vial through the rubberized packing layer, then push the lever slowly so as not to leave the air in the syringe.
  • Flip the vial until the syringe is in the bottom position. The lever will be pushed by air pressure and filled with insulin, then pull the lever to insert insulin according to the dose needed.
  • If there are air bubbles, tap the syringe, so the air bubble rises up, then push the lever to release the bubble, and pull the lever back to take the right dose of insulin.
  • Clean the area of the skin you are going to inject with an alcohol tissue. Hold the area of the skin with your finger then inject insulin with a 90 degree position. It should be noted that the syringe is only used once, so the syringe must be discarded immediately after use.


For people who have difficulty using conventional syringes, can use a device that resembles a pen to facilitate insulin injection. This tool is called an insulin pen. Just like insulin injections, the insulin syringe pen is only used once and must always be replaced after use. Now insulin pen is increasingly being used because of its ease of use.

The use of insulin pen is more or less the same as conventional syringes, the difference is that insulin pen users do not need to measure the dose using insulin. You can simply set the doctor's recommended dose on the insulin pen, then inject it.

Below is a practical way to use insulin pen:

  • Remove the insulin pen from the refrigerator, at least 30 minutes before injection.
  • Wash hands thoroughly.
  • Remove the insulin pen cover, then attach the needle to the insulin pen tip.
  • Remove the needle cover, and remove the air from the insulin pen by tapping the insulin pen tube until the air gathers above, then press the injection button located on the insulin pen tip.
  • Set the dose according to the doctor's advice, then inject insulin after cleaning the area of the skin with an alcohol tissue.
  • Avoid injecting insulin in areas that experience bruising or sores. Try to inject insulin in a different area than before.


Although it has benefits, insulin injections have side effects that need attention. Insulation of insulin can cause low blood sugar levels or hypoglycemia. Characterized by irritability, excessive sweating, fatigue or trembling. You may also feel hunger, dizziness, and heart beat faster. If hypoglycemia is severe enough, it can cause fainting or convulsions. Immediately consult a doctor to get proper treatment.

Although diabetics have insulin disorders, but not all need insulin injections. Consult a doctor to find out if your diabetes requires insulin injection as a way to treat it.

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Is a health and wellness enthusiast. In him free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.

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