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White blood cell disorders You need to know

Leukopenia is a condition when the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) is lower than the normal condition of 5000-10000 per cubic millimeter. This condition causes the occurrence of complaints of fever (low grade fever), recurrent thrush, pain when swallowing, swollen gums, inflammation of the sinuses to lung infections (pneumonia).

Besides leukopenia, white blood cells can also experience various other disorders. This situation is grouped based on the number and function of the white blood cell itself.

A glimpse of white blood cells

White blood cells, or in medical terms known as leukocytes, are important components in the human immune system. White blood cells are made in the bone marrow, found in the blood and lymphatic tissue. White blood cells play a role in helping the body fight infections and diseases.

Neutropenia and leukopenia are terms used to refer to the situation when the white blood cell count is too low in the blood. When the white blood cell count is too low, the risk of infection will be higher.

Low white blood cells are usually most susceptible to people who are doing cancer treatment (chemotherapy) and have a weak immune system due to certain diseases.

Among the various abnormalities that can occur in white blood cells, the four most common abnormalities are as follows:


Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that occurs in the lymphatic system (lymph nodes). This gland functions to produce one type of white blood cell, namely lymphocytes.

Lymphocytes should function to form antibodies and prevent the body from getting a viral infection. However, in lymphomas, lymphocytes multiply, get out of control, and change their nature to become malignant.

A common symptom of these complaints is enlarged lymph nodes, usually starting in the neck or underarms, coughing, shortness of breath, fever, weakness, and weight loss.


Leukemia is a type of blood cancer, where white blood cells become malignant and multiply (leukocytosis) in the bone marrow.

There are several types of leukemia, and are generally divided into two based on their progressiveness, namely acute and chronic. In acute leukemia, symptoms appear quickly and deteriorate rapidly. Meanwhile, chronic leukemia is usually slower.

Leukemia can occur in children and adults. The symptoms experienced by sufferers are anemia (lack of red blood cells) because the production of red blood cells is suppressed by malignant white blood cells, gums bleed easily, the skin often produces bruises, weight loss and appetite.

Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a blood cancer that occurs in the bone marrow. In this condition, the bone marrow produces immature blood cells called blasts. These young cells multiply so that it suppresses mature and healthy cell production.

MDS usually occurs slowly, but can turn into leukemia. Symptoms are similar to leukemia, which is anemia, bleeding gums, weakness, easy bruising, and weight loss.

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy that occurs in one part of white blood cells, namely plasma cells. This disease is often also referred to as plasma cell leukemia. Plasma cells multiply and release M proteins that can damage organs, such as the kidneys, bones, and nerves. Common symptoms of multiple myeloma are bone pain, fractures, skin and gum bleeding, anemia, weakness, and kidney failure.

The four white blood cell abnormalities above often show symptoms that are not typical and difficult to distinguish from each other. To confirm the diagnosis, supporting examinations such as radiology or laboratory must be carried out.

On that basis, if you or family members often experience weakness, pain throughout the body, gums bleed easily, the body is easily bruised, and weight loss is drastic, consult a doctor. The earlier it is detected and overcome, the possibility of recovery becomes higher.

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Is a health and wellness enthusiast. In him free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.

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